Saturday, 30 July 2011

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance.


There have been more than” 3,300 scholarly articles which has been published on the topic of job satisfaction in Locke’s 1976 review of job satisfaction literature.  Another 7,855 articles published on the topic between 1976 and 2000, according to Harter, Schmidt and Hayes’ research.  The increase in the research studies suggests that job satisfaction might be positively connected with performance outcomes. (Cole, Larry E and Cole, Michael S.  Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance:  A summary of Key Findings from Applied Psychology.  https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.teammax.net%2Ffiles%2FLiteratureReview.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011. 1.)”


Job satisfaction according to Locke is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.” (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  396.)” The importance of the work situation is an area Human Resources can help influence via organizational programs and management practices.  Over the years research has indicated that there are dispositional and cultural influences on job satisfaction.  “One of the most important areas of the work situation to influence job satisfaction- the work itself- is often overlooked by practioners when addressing job satisfaction.  (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  396.)” 


Disposition is one of the characteristics for the causes of job satisfaction however it is not yet informative to exactly how much it affects job satisfaction.  “Researchers have begun to explore the psychological processes that underlie dispositional causes of job satisfaction.  For example, disposition may influence the experience of emotionally significant events at work, which in turn influences job satisfaction.  Key personality trait, core self-evaluation, correlatives with employee job satisfaction.  Another primary cause is how the employee perceives the job itself.  Thus it appears that the most important situational effect on job satisfaction- the job itself- is linked to what may be the most important personality trait to predict job satisfaction- core self-evaluation.  Extraversion and conscientiousness can also influence job satisfaction. (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  396.)” 


Cultural Influences or country on employee attitudes and job satisfaction is a new research which stems from the continued globalization of companies.  The four cross-cultural dimensions (1.  Individualism-collectivism; 2.  Uncertainty avoidance versus risk taking; 3.  Power distance or the extent to which power is unequally distributed; and 4. Achievement orientation) has been a useful framework for understanding cross-cultural differences in employee attitudes, as well as recognizing the importance of cultural causes of employee attitudes.  Country/culture is as strong a predictor of employee attitudes as the type of job a person has. (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  397.)” 


Work situation matters in the terms of job satisfaction and organization impact.  Intrinsic job characteristics, otherwise known as the nature of the work itself, are one of the most notable situational influences on job satisfaction.  This is the area Human Resources usually focus first on.


The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is inconclusive and has a controversial history.  “The Hawthorne studies conducted in the 1930’s are often credited with making researchers aware of the effects of employee attitudes on performance.  Researchers began to take a critical look at the “happy worker is a productive worker” idea.  The authors in a review of the literature in 1985 concluded that the presumed relationship between job satisfaction and performance was a ‘management fad” and “illusory”.  This study impacted researchers in that the conclusion between job satisfaction and performance was trivial.  (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  398.)” 


Further research did not agree with that conclusion.  “Organ suggested that the failure to find a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance is due to the narrow means often used to define job performance.  When performance is defined to include important behaviors not generally reflected in performance appraisals, such as organizational citizenship behaviors, its relationship with job satisfaction improves.  Research tends to support Organ’s proposition in that job satisfaction correlates with organizational citizenship behaviors.  (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  396.)” Even further studies conducted by various researchers “found that when the correlations are appropriately corrected (for sampling and measurement errors), the average correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is higher.  The relationship between job satisfaction and performance was found to be even higher for complex (professional) jobs than for less complex jobs.  Hence contrary to earlier reviews, it appears that job satisfaction is predictive of performance and the relationship is stronger for professional jobs. (Judge, Timothy A.  and Saari, Lise M.  Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.    https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.utm.edu%2Fstaff%2Fmikem%2Fdocuments%2Fjobsatisfaction.pdf, retrieved 26 April, 2011.  396.)” 



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