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Saturday, 10 September 2011

Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation Education – Thesis

Chapter 1


THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


 


Introduction


            In March 2006, reports state that the student enrolment in the Philippines for both Marine Transportation and Marine Engineering courses has suffered a dramatic decline as compared over the past five years. Philippines CMS Crew Management Services Manager  listed a drop-out rate from 0.06 percent to a high of 0.30 percent. In the same report, a decrease in the number of graduates for the same period reached a record from 0.03 percent to a high of 0.41 percent. Among these graduates, only 7.6 percent took the licensure examination of which 71 percent passed. These facts showed the current issues affecting the maritime education in the Philippines.


            The role of education in nation-building is vitally recognized. Every year, millions of students are enrolled in different courses of specialization to realize their individual dreams. With the advent of technological innovations and contemporary teaching strategies, the education system of the country is overly affected. Maritime education in the Philippines is just a fragment of the generally problematic education system of the country. Most researchers agree that the education system and conditions of the country is among the most popularly and widely written research subject. The concept of poverty is always connected with education. Education, ironically, was also deemed as the antidote of poverty. With this thought reverberating in mind of every Filipino student, it is then necessary to pay particular attention to the state of education in the country. On this case, the maritime education system is under explication and scrutiny. The Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) in a published press release states that the country possesses comparative advantages in maritime education among the APEC regions. It is surprising to know that the Philippines is the primary source of world-class seafarers yet the educational system is faced with various challenges that sprouted from both societal and institutional setup and conditions.


According to an article published by the  () (2005), the Philippines plays a stellar function in the international shipping and maritime industry with its position as the principal supplier of seafarers. The successful placement of Filipino marine officers and seafarers on various foreign-going marine transportations such as passenger luxury cruise ships offered lush employment for thousand of Filipinos. For the record indicated in the same article, one of five ocean going seafarer is a Filipino while three in ten international ships employ Filipino seafarers. It was also identified that Norwegian flagged and controlled ships are the biggest employers with about 25,000 Filipino sailing the seven seas on their ships, out of 139,000 reported sea based countrymen. The Philippines has the largest supply of seafarers at around 28% (, 2005). With these identified figures, it is safe to claim that Filipino seafarers are breaking racial boundaries and identity issues among foreign oceans with their innate ability to excel as world-class seafarers. Similarly, the country is an active member of IMO and belongs to the so-called White List. The maritime industry of the country has a national policy supported by both State-run and State-private enterprise-sea-farer sector partnerships particularly in promoting the market competitiveness and welfare of the Filipino seafarers (, 2006).


More often than not, the performances of the Filipino seafarers are rooted in their early higher education experiences. Today, there are numerous maritime schools that offer marine courses such as Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation (BSMT) and Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering (BSMarE) or similar short-term maritime related courses such as basic seaman’s course. According to , there are 118 maritime schools in 1998 led by the state-managed Philippine Merchant Marine Academy (PMMA) situated in various regions of the country. These maritime schools are down to 76, a 36 percent decrease, wherein 42 were closed due to the failure to comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) standards. These maritime schools strictly follow the IMO model courses as promulgated by the 1978 convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for seafarers (STCW), as amended in 1995, and are the only ones allowed by our government to conduct and administer baccalaureate courses with 3-year academics plus 1 year supervised shipboard apprenticeship for deck and engine cadets. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) recognized and accredited these maritime courses offered by duly authorized academic institutions. On November 12, 1999, the CHED released the names of maritime schools it deemed to have passed the IMO-STCW standards (, 2000). This raised another controversy on how CHED came up with their evaluation protocol. Aside from legitimate maritime schools, there are maritime training centers that should be accredited by the Maritime Training Council (MTC). Both CHED and MTC monitor the educational environment of the future world-class Filipino seafarers.


Maintaining the premier position of Filipino seafarers poses a difficult challenge to face as the emerging competitors from other continents are making their own way up the maritime status ladder. The Philippine government could not be complacent and contented with the present share of sea-based labor of some 16% but will need to strive to capture more and increase in number. There is still room for improving competence and employability of Filipino compatriots. Should the government will go the extra mile to keep them abreast with fast paced technological innovations and advances in shipping. And to make these things more possible, studying the enrolment trends of the maritime courses in the country is of great help.


At present, the Philippines is the prime source of internationally renowned seafarers and seamen (, 2006).  said that the international maritime industry extensively recognized the country as a source of competent seafarers “with a natural likeness to the sea, qualities of cultural adaptability, general technical competence, and English proficiency”. Meanwhile,  (2001) said that maritime education in the Philippines is among the best in the Asia-Pacific region and even the world. Despite the issues faced by maritime schools and institutions in the past decades, the maritime education system of the country could be claimed as outstanding.


According to the  () (2002) – a central ISO-certified State organization that is in-charge on planning for the deployment of seafarers for foreign flag vessels, the Filipino seafarer is cited among world’s competent mariners. Now, there are again problems in the maritime education of the country. How will we sustain such recognition if the maritime education is repeating its history of downgrading method of instruction? The Philippines is also running-out of highly skilled marine officers (, 2006). With the growing problems, the maritime industry in cooperation with State-identified institutions, various mechanisms were designed and implemented to continuously maintain the Filipino seafarer’s world-class reputation.


Today, as the Filipino seafarer prepares to conquer intercontinental seas, the need to have quality education is required. With the emerging trends in maritime education, there are some problems that should be address. These problems may occur before, during, and after maritime schooling. This research is directed to the exploration of the factors that affect the enrolment number of maritime education students particularly to the two courses aforementioned with great emphasis on Marine Engineering.


 


Background Information


Marine Education in the Philippines


            The Philippine education system, according to the report of  of  () (2001), is classified under nine clusters of disciplines for both undergraduate and graduate degrees and diploma. These nine clusters of discipline are Agriculture Education, Business and Management Education, Engineering and Architecture, Health Profession Education, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication, Information Technology, Maritime Education, Science and Mathematics, and Teacher Education. Under the Maritime Education, the following fields or disciplines included are Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Marine Transportation, Marine Engineering, and Basic Merchant Marine Course.


            The maritime education in the country was faced by different stages of transition – from its challenging beginnings up to the current state of opulence. A news report from  (1992) stated that maritime education is the oldest educational system in the country. This claim is attributed to the geographic characteristics of the Philippines. Consisting of 7,107 islands and islets depending on tides, the country has a long coastline which is 235,973 square kilometers, longer than the United States (, 2002). With this fact, it is historically indicated that early ancestors already travel from islands to another by using boats and other water transportation made available at the early times. Thus, the Filipinos are culturally and historically innate or accustomed to marine navigation.


Maritime education also experienced downfalls characterized with downgrading quality of marine education and the need to meet quality standard requirements imposed by CHED and the IMO or the international maritime industry in general. The CHED, being the immediate institution that evaluates the quality of instruction in maritime schools, conducts evaluation procedures to see to it that both national and international requirements on maritime education are met. There have been controversies (, 2000) especially in the classification of marine schools and training centers who reached acceptable level of standards. In March-April 2001, the  published an online article specifying on 37 institutions who complied with Standards for Training, Certification and Watchkeeping ( ’95) as based in a memorandum circular issued by the CHED on March 2. Based on surveys conducted by the MTC, there are an estimated 118 schools offering BS Marine Transportation and BS Marine Engineering courses today. MTC executive director  said the number is slightly lower than the 127 schools in 1996 and 15 less than the total 133 in the early 90s. As the condition of general education in the country complicates, the marine education is not an exemption.


 newspaper ( 2006) reported the 7th Asia-Pacific Manning and Training Conference at the Philippine Plaza Hotel, where Maritime Academy of the Asia and the Pacific (MAAP) president  said that maritime education needs reforms. Such reforms must be centered to maritime academies all over the nation. The reforms include the following: inclusion of leadership training in their curriculum to boost Filipino seamen’s chances, lowering of attrition rate of enrollees and mixing out better trained graduates.


 


Marine Engineering


            A ship’s crew is divided into two distinct sections: those who navigate the ship and those who maintain and control the machinery and carry out all repair functions on-board. The former probably studied and finished Marine Transportation and the latter is Marine Engineering. Both work hand in hand in order to maintain safety of the vessel and its content.


In most maritime academies, the program description of this course includes ship engine maintenance and overall onboard ship conduct. A marine student is trained to be worthy seafarers by instilling values like sense of responsibility, discipline and competence to become Marine Engine Officer. The products of this course become the members of a ship’s crew that work on the maintenance of the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. They also deal with the “hotel” facilities of the vessel such as the sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water systems. Marine engineers deal with massive fuel transfers and require training in firefighting and first aid. They also work with the ship’s boats and other nautical tasks especially with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems.


On special cases, the marine engineer is involved in the new design and construction of complicated naval systems like naval architecture or ship design. The subjects included in Marine Engineering program ranges from marine power plants, thermodynamics, hydromechanics, and electronic technology. Other job opportunities for graduates of this course aside from Marine Engine Officer include Engine Cadet, Chief Engineer, Shipping Executive, Port Engineer, Training Center Engineer, and Teacher of Marine Engineering subjects among others.


 


Marine Transportation


            Marine Transportation, for most maritime institutions, refers to the study of ship operations and overall onboard ship conduct. A Marine Transportation student is armed with the sense of responsibility, discipline, awareness of safety, and competence characteristic of a Marine Deck Officer. Generally, Maritime Transportation students learn the process of manning and navigating vessels. They also deal with specific cargo discharge function particularly deck officers and deck workers.


In this program, the students are trained to be knowledgeable in ship operations including ship handling, navigation, meteorology, cargo handling and stowage, and communications. Aside from the mentioned position, the Marine Transportation graduate can work as Deck Cadet, Master Mariner (or Marine Deck Officer), Port Captain, Shipping Executive, Harbor Pilots, Marine Consultant, and Teacher of Marine Transportation subjects among others.


 


 


Philippine Merchant Marine Academy (PMMA)


            The PMMA’s history could be accessible through their website. Meanwhile,  (2007) provided a comprehensive history and was adapted in this research study.


In January 1, 1820, Spanish Colonials institutionalized formal maritime education with establishment of “Escuela Nautica Manila” and inaugurated on April 5, 1820 in its initial location, at Calle Cabildo in Intramuros, Manila. In 1863, the school was relocated to Calle San Juan de Letran, then to Calle de Palacio in 1884 and then to Binondo, Manila in 1898. It was closed during the Philippine Revolution and eventually reopened after the American Occupation on December 15, 1899 as the Nautical School of the Philippine Islands. It was moved again into the U.S. Navy Warehouse at Calle Sta. Elena in San Nicolas with Spanish as the medium of instruction.


Later on, it was converted into the Philippine Nautical School. In 1913, it was reopened upon representations of progressive firms and was placed under the Philippine School for Arts and Trades located at Aroceros St., Manila, then later moved to Roberts St., Pasay City. During the Second World War, classes were suspended but these were reopened by the Japanese. During the liberation, it was placed under the supervision of Capt. . In 1963, R.A. 3680 converted the Philippine Nautical School into the Philippine Merchant Marine Academy and changed its course offerings into B.S. degrees. It was relocated at Fort Bonifacio, Makati City in 1968. From then on, it was placed under the Department of Transportation and Communications. In 1996, it was placed directly under the supervision of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). On February 2, 1998 PMMA was transferred to San Narciso, Zambales. Today, the PMMA is a premier maritime institution in the Philippines and operated by the Philippine Government under the supervision of the CHED. Students are called “midshipmen” but are often also referred to as “cadets”.


The academy offers courses for Bachelor of Science degrees in Marine Transportation and Marine Engineering. Both are four-year residency courses consisting of a three-year period of academic studies (1st, 2nd and 4th year) and one year apprentice training (3rd year) on board commercial vessels plying the international sea lanes as deck or engine cadets. For those who wish to reach the upper echelons of the maritime industry, the academy also offers Master’s degree courses in Shipping Business Management and Maritime Education. Aside from addressing the academic requirements of the midshipmen, the curriculum also provides training for their leadership and discipline. The leadership and discipline training scheme is military oriented. Such approach is deemed necessary considering the uniqueness of the marine profession which requires the highest degree of leadership, discipline and integrity. As a result, graduates of PMMA are automatically commissioned as Ensign in the Philippine Navy and the Philippine Coast Guard.


 


 


Statement of the Problem


This research case study generally deals with the enrolment trends of maritime courses in the Philippines. It explores on the reasons why Marine Engineering enrollees is declining as compared to Marine Transportation. In order to find the sought information, the following research questions are to be answered:


      What are the factors affecting the enrolment decline of Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation students in terms of:


a.      Personal and


b.      Professional perspectives?


      What are the effects of these factors in the overall condition of:


a.      Maritime education and


b.      Maritime industry in the country?


 


Hypothesis


            The opinions of the respondents do not differ significantly as regards to the factors that affect enrolment decline in Marine Engineering compared to Marine Transportation. The effects of these factors in the overall condition of maritime education and maritime industry in the country are negligible.


 


Significance of the Study


A case study is an extensive evaluation or examination of a single instance of a phenomenon of interest. Given this fact, this case study has many functions in which it will primarily serve. This study was conducted with the intention to provide information and explanations to the reasons why Marine Engineering enrollees are declining compared to Marine Transportation. Generally, this research case study is for knowledge acquisition and awareness. The importance of this study lies to the eventual presentation of data that seek to answer the question on the factors that affect enrollees on these two particular marine courses.


Theoretically, this study is intended for educational management practitioners, academicians, and maritime sciences personnel and students in providing body of knowledge that they may use in the performance of their own individual duties. It is also an attempt to contribute on the literature focusing on the said subject. Moreover, this study seeks to give information on issues ranging from the reasons why Marine Engineering enrollees are declining compared to Marine Transportation, the different reasons, and the degree of its potential effects to the maritime education and overall maritime industry in the Philippines. Empirically, this study is intended as a theoretical basis that can be used in problem-solving and decision making and taking situations in the academic setting.


By being aware of these factors that affect the enrolment conditions, the readers of this research will be able to validate their existing preconceptions by linking such with the results and findings of the study. The identified factors in the enrolment procedures of Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation students will encourage school-related individuals, particularly the school administrators, and people in general to identify the trends on maritime education today. Moreover, researchers, scholars, experts, and educators can gain from this study, as they find the connection between how they have to design their curriculum and what the actual needs of the maritime students are as well as the emerging sophisticated process evident in the maritime education and maritime industry in general. In that way, they would be able to make immediate changes, if necessary, or continued improvement of their maritime programs, through further studies. Also, this study would benefit future researchers in the field of maritime education and maritime industry or the social sciences in general since it depicts the future of the maritime education and maritime industry as whole and its varying effects to many sectors of society.


Finally, to the researcher, this study will increase the knowledge that is innate to himself. The interests that he posses in relation to maritime education and its applications, particularly in being a world-class seafarer will flourish as he continue to explore the adventurous and challenging world of maritime education. From this research study, the researcher will be able to contribute to the existing body of knowledge within the limits of his academic environment through the study’s results and findings. Additionally, the development in his personality in relation to professionalism and work ethics will also be cultivated throughout the duration of the research. All in all, this endeavor will make the researcher a better person and an able professional in his chosen profession.    


 


Scope and Delimitations of the Study


            This research study is limited on finding the factors that affect the decline of Marine Engineering enrollees compared to Marine Transportation. This will not criticize the existing policies on maritime education in the Philippines. It will use 120 students per course, which means there are 240 overall respondents. This study in particular is descriptive and exploratory in approach using both qualitative and quantitative research design. As such, it is but necessary to limit the scope of the study for future researchers’ ease in using this study as a reference in their future academic endeavors that this research extensively or partly answers.


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Chapter 2


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


 


            The wide range of literatures related to education and educational management as well as various phenomena affecting its totality are extensive. Given with this fact, this chapter goes over the related foreign and local literatures conducted on the area of study.  By embarking on such pursuit, the research may be guided accordingly by firstly discovering where the research is coming from, what and how much have been studied regarding the topic and what it is yet to tackle.  Besides providing background to the study, this chapter provides the necessary backbone and support in order for the research to stand credible.


            The key terms used in literature search are maritime education, maritime industry, Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation courses, and similarly related terms. By surveying the past publications and researches related to the study, a historical perspective may take place. The researcher also gained an idea on how such venture has been explored in the past.  In this manner, this study may be able to reflect, compare itself, learn from setbacks and produce a stronger and more efficient study. The literature review also provides the research a rich source of data, both new and old, that will enhance and enrich the study and the direction it will plan to undertake even more. References from this segment of the paper are product of broad researching and information retrieval.


 


Local Literature


            In the Philippines, the literatures on maritime education are limited to academic reference materials including textbooks and course materials. Research studies are more or less tackled by selected individuals and institutions. There had been little research conducted and published in relation to maritime education and related aspects. The conduction of this study is then right and timely especially in providing useful body of knowledge to the chosen area of study and specialization.


            Maritime education in the Philippines is among the best in the Asia-Pacific region (, 2001) and even the world. This is evident on the study sponsored by Philippine APEC Study Center Network which performed a benchmarking action on the country’s maritime and nursing education particularly in its best practices (, 2001). In the said study, Ramirez identified the outstanding qualities of the Philippine maritime education such as the composition of maritime bachelor degree, which consists of general education, specialization courses and one-year apprenticeship; English as the medium of instruction; and the emphasis on character and values necessary for students who serve locally and internationally. Such values and attitudes are reflected on the culture of discipline, hard work and team work are essential characteristics of Filipino servicemen. This research study was used by PIDS in the press release to build on the promising reputation of the maritime education system in the country.


On the results of the Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC) survey in 2003 (, 2005), it reveals that of the total number of Filipino seafarers manning various ships across the globe. For the record, a measly 8.5% were senior officers, 21.5% were junior officers, and most or 70% were ratings. On the same survey, it was noted a marked decline from 11% in the share of senior officers and from 24% in the share of junior officers from its 2000 survey. Its significant share, however, in the over all market has undoubtedly remained a key to the supply-demand equation of maritime labor.


Yet, the history and development of maritime education in the country is documented by nationwide newspapers. Issues, problems, solutions, and all matters of the maritime education and maritime industry are publicized through daily news and correspondence. An article from Manila Chronicle (1992) reported that maritime education is the oldest educational system in the country as based on the geographic characteristics of the Philippines. Similarly, the  (1993) documented the training of merchant ship officers in order to equip them for effective maritime services to be rendered. It has been identified that the country is the number one supplier of able seafarers for international shipping fleet. In the earlier decades, the problem of Philippine educational system specifically maritime education emerged and became complicated. A news report from  in June 1993 stated the problem of downgrading of maritime education blamed on Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), now Department of Education (DepEd). Meanwhile, a report published in  in July 1997 claims that schools for sailors are substandard as according to CHED (, 1997).  (1997) affirmed the statement of CHED by quoting Maritime League that the value of maritime education is deteriorating. 


With the identified problems in the maritime education of the country, the DECS revises the curricula (, 1997). This is to address the emerging issues that affect the overall condition of the maritime education in the country. In November 1997, the  published a report on the participation of the country and its selected delegates on a 3-day (December 2-4) general meeting of the Association of Maritime Education and Training Institute in Asia Pacific (AMETIAP) in Singapore. This could be among the state’s solution to the budding problems facing the maritime education system and maritime industry as well as way to accumulate body of knowledge that are useful to the general condition of maritime industry in the Asia-Pacific and the world. An editorial from  published last November 26, 1997 discusses the issue of maritime education in keeping its standards for quality professionalism. This is to emphasize the need of creating quality standards towards Filipino students who will become seafarers in the future.


Due to the conditions of the maritime schools and institutions in the country and the problems that affect maritime education system, the Malacaňang warned school administration to “go to sea or sink” (, 1997). This prompts schools to upgrade their teaching strategies and all related factors on the maritime education system. As the condition of the maritime education worsens, a report from  early in 1998 claimed that “RP may no longer be majour source of world’s seamen”.  (1998) also reported that the poor schooling of the maritime students threatens jobs for Filipino seamen.


It is indicated that with the budding need of maritime services worldwide, it requires more qualified Filipino seamen (, 1998). To attain this vision, the enhancement of maritime education and training seamen effectively would help. As the government implements quality assurance strategies to address the problem, a report from  in July 1998 states that the CHED conducted evaluation of maritime school standards and identified names of schools that passed according to the IMO requirements. CHED authorities continued to monitor maritime school standards. Two years later, these evaluation activities created controversy as reported by  (2000). To further enhance maritime education and training, the Asian Maritime University cited a new education concept, according to the  in February 1999. This includes the improvement on curriculum and integration of latest technological innovations in the maritime education and training of student.


The CHED and the National Association of Maritime Schools and Training Institutes, in a report written in  (April 1999), recognized that the inclusion of the country to the IMO White List endangers maritime schools. Because of the requirement of achieving IMO standards, maritime schools are faced with the challenge of improving instructional techniques and materials or let the CHED recommend or impose closure to educational institutions who fails to ameliorate into acceptable standards. The CHED phased out maritime programs of schools who failed in quality standards evaluation (, August 2001). After reviewing their curricula and with the objectives to maintain excellence in maritime education, maritime degree in 32 identified schools is barred due to their inability to comply with prescribed standards (, 2001). Similarly, the  (2001) newspaper reported 44 maritime courses were phased out by CHED. The  newspaper acknowledged specific schools while the  newspaper is on maritime courses. Aside from constant evaluation of maritime school standards and with the need to restructure and enhance maritime schools and their standards,  (May 1999) reports that the CHED sets review to the country’s maritime programs offered in various maritime schools.


In line with the improvement measures, a textbook program for maritime education was set (, June 1999).  of  and  set this textbook development and production program as an associated activity and in cooperation to the national government’s efforts of improving the maritime education system of the Philippines. With the robust efforts of enhancing maritime education system and training in the country, the (2000) reports the country on hitting excellence in maritime training. The improved maritime education condition in the Philippines paved way for more maritime business and opportunities both locally and internationally like the ones offered by Netherlands (, 2001). Results of the yearly efforts of making a quality maritime education reap its fruit when Filipino seafarers are reported to be highly demanded for employment in international shipping line and general maritime industry (, 2001). As a matter of fact, in December of 2001, more than 10,000 listed jobs are waiting for Filipino sailors in Norwegian ships for employment (, 2001).


 (2002) reports on the “Philippines’ state-funded maritime education and training institutions” to listen to the appeal of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo for cost reduction, savings, job generation and global competitiveness in maritime education and maritime industry. This is according to Secretary , Presidential Assistant for Education. Again, the history of maritime education in the Philippines may happen again. With this,  (2006) suggests that the government and the industry must be aware of the potential problems that may arise. The deficiencies must be identified and standards are also revised. He said that shortcuts must be stopped now and given concentration on education rather than the revenue generation must be instituted.


            Basing on the literatures above, the maritime education – its history and further development – vary from time to time. It was also noticed that most literatures on marine education are focused on general education as well as professional subjects that are imperative to the overall learning experiences of students and to the teaching of instructors. References for maritime subjects are thriving yet it is outstanding to note that these are written by foreign authors. It could be said that local literatures are scarce or limited within the bounds of social institutions that undergone such researches. The publication of research studies and its results is complicated due to the time constraint and financial challenges.


 


Foreign Literature


            As identified, the foreign literature in maritime education and maritime industry is sufficient yet they cater in terms of geography, science, politics, law, sociology, and other applications.


            Marine education on these recent years is equipped with technological advancements and various reforms and improvements. The need to deal with the demands of internationalization and globalization processes necessitates maritime institutions worldwide to upgrade in terms of instruction and facilities. According to an article in  (2006), the maritime industry and labor is facing various challenges. In February 2006, the Maritime Session of the International Labour Conference adopted a consolidated maritime Labour Convention. This instrument represents a major breakthrough in several respects. Not only does it embody a comprehensive maritime labor code designed to protect over 1.2 million seafarers worldwide, but it is also highly innovative compared with previous international labor standards in terms of format, content and procedures for revision. It is recognized that many of the previous standards needed updating because the maritime sector has undergone sweeping structural changes over the past 25 years, particularly as a result of the globalization of its operations and workforce. With the recognition of the role of change in the international maritime arena, maritime education is no exemption.


            Specifically,  (1995) states that the aim of education in the area of marine engineering is to convey knowledge of the construction and operation of the automation systems of ships in accordance with the requirements of the IMO as formulated in the STCW ’95 Convention. The range of courses includes electrical, electronic, and control engineering distributed over the operational and management levels, comprising a theoretical knowledge (fundamentals of automation, instrumentation and control systems) and a practical knowledge (operation, testing and maintenance of electrical and electronic control equipment including fault diagnostics) (, 1995). Furthermore,  (2004) identified the specialized training of marine students, seafaring cadets, and crewmembers have seen numerous changes in the last few decades. The advent of contemporary technologies and computer-based instruction affected worldwide maritime education and training (MET), just like any other fields of education and specializations (, 2004; , 2004; ., 2003,  and , 2000; ., 1997).


            As mentioned in the first chapter of this research, the Philippines plays an outstanding role in the international shipping and maritime industry by being the principal supplier of seafarers (, 2005).  and  (2005) explored the employability of Chinese and Filipino seafarers. The reputation of mariners from the Philippines is illuminated not only by this article but also with the evident reports from legitimate maritime offices locally and internationally. So, by studying the early maritime education patterns of the future Filipino seafarers, this research is able to present predictions on the future mariners particularly those who are enrolled in Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation respectively.


            The state of maritime education in the Philippines is commonly documented by United Nations subsidiaries. Although, such publications cater to the macroscopic perspective, they are also descriptive and lack in empirical investigation. Further, the international literature of Philippine maritime education is limited in the institutionalization processes handled by legitimate sources and sponsors. Most of the time, publications of literature or conduction of research activities on Filipino maritime education is sponsored by maritime organizations, private academies, and other related agencies and findings were kept and used in private. In some cases, they publicized several portions of the findings yet they were already classified as important data are weeded out. Also, literatures in maritime education or maritime subject in general are school-based. Thus, through this research, the presence of limited international publications pertaining to Filipino maritime education – being the world’s top choice in maritime industry, is recognized.


 


Local Studies


In a study conducted by  (1992), he probed on the development and role of Mariners Polytechnic Colleges Foundation in maritime education. This is among the earliest and fundamental research studies focusing on the study and teaching techniques of the said institution. Results from this study showed the circumstances and trends of maritime teaching and learning in the early 1990s and affirmed the need to improve standards. However, the weakness of this study is its inability to look into general maritime education conditions in the country since it is limited on the said institution. Yet it is focused both on teaching and learning process, it may be deemed that such processes are no longer applicable or existent in the current maritime education setting.


Similarly,  (1997) used the aforementioned institution and tackled the status and prospects of marine education. The author presented the history of Mariners Polytechnic Colleges Foundation and likewise explore on its study and teaching processes. The result and criticism of the study is also similar to  (1992).


 (2001) focused her comparative study of the attitude towards quality education of professional and general education instruction of maritime schools. The topic mainly caters to the rating of college teachers. Like the other studies conducted, results showed the need of constantly upgrading and enhancing of teaching strategies and facilities. The evaluation of qualifications, skills and abilities of both professional and general education instructors are crucial in finding out the effects on the overall bearing of maritime students as products. There are significant qualities that characterize the one from the other. Professional education instructors possess specialized skills that are learned from particular degrees or specialization. The concentration of knowledge is mostly directed to the professional courses or subjects taken up by the students. On the contrary, general education instructors are less focused as they may come from various academic backgrounds yet possessing the ability to teach general education subjects. General results shows specific differences but still it recognizes the need for improvement as based on the trends in the maritime education system. The criticism of this comparative research is on the accuracy of the criteria used in the evaluation of both subjects of the study. The question of subjectivity is highly probable. It is suggested that the evaluation criteria is approved by authorized personnel or based in quality standards presented by a reputable educational body or agency.


Further,  (1999) affirmed the important role of communication in education. On her case, she tackled on the communication program of National maritime Polytechnic particularly on the implications for future program directions. Communication may be defined as the transmission of meaning and information from one person to another ( and , 1998). While the transmission itself may appear to be a simple task, the interpretation of the message being relayed through communication poses a challenge. In general, communication becomes effective when both parties involved are honest and open to share information and have the ability to decipher the meaning of their messages. Effective communication must always practice as it is significant to individual health as well as for the creation of positive relationships. Specifically, the ability to communicate directly affects an individual’s stress levels, self-esteem and relationship quality ( and , 1998; , 1992). Communication serves a number of functions for the organization (, 2001). In production, communication plays its role in the direction, coordination, and control of tasks and activities. It deals with the what, when, and how of the process. Consequently, communication serves as the pathway through which suggestions and insights that would generate change and new ideas in the system are discussed. Communication also keeps and preserves values and relationships necessary to keep the system of the organization collectively. Effective communication is a necessity in the workplace (, 2002). Researchers and practitioners have long recognized communication skills are critical to job performance, career advancement, and organizational success (, 1989;  and , 1986; , 1987). Similarly,  (1994) suggested that communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information.


            ’s study is limited in terms of environment. However, it is not a big factor that can be greatly attributed or contributory to the results of the research. What is interesting in the study is the comprehensive discussion of the role and functions of communication. The identified implications are also imperative as they serve as the main challenges in the communication program as well as process not only of the selected institution but in general as well. Given these implications, precautionary and safety measures are established. On the other hand, the research is unaware of the factors that affect the effective implementation of communication program. With this, it might have been easier to devise practical and useful recommendations. The diversity of communication programs in relation to its objectives is also overseen. The idea of what-works-with-this-will-not-work-on-the-other is ignored. Then again, the suggestion for future research investigation is helpful to overcome the research flaws. This research topic was vastly discussed by other researchers, experts, and authors and similarly applies to various setting.


            On other applications,  (1980) surveyed and studied the conditions of maritime libraries in Metro Manila in order to come up with recommendation on the improvement of libraries in the Philippines particularly on naval and maritime subjects. Similarly,  (1997) focused on the evaluation of 25 libraries in Engineering colleges and universities in Metro Manila using the standards set by the Technical Panel for Engineering Architecture, and Maritime Education (TPEAME). During the second semester of school year 1996-1997, the author used a two-part questionnaire to gather data on the present status of the engineering libraries and was supplemented by direct observation and interviews.


The findings of  are not far from ’s considering almost two decades of interval. It revealed that thirteen libraries have weak periodical collections and did not meet the standard for storage space of seldom used books. Specific recommendations were suggested for possible improvement in the administration and organization of the resources and services of the libraries. On the brighter perspective, the findings are: the objectives of the library are in accordance with institutional goals and aims; heads of the libraries are qualified professional librarians and members of library associations; and libraries have existing policies regarding administration and organization of their resources and services. In the long run, these two studies show the need to continuously improve the educational facilities in the country regardless of field of specialization.


 (1997) concentrated on social science instruction particularly on values education and the development of values in Philippine Maritime Institute in Tagbilaran City for the school year 1996-1997.  (2000), in a correlational study, discussed the shipboard experience in relation to training performance in personal safety and social responsibility course at IDESS Maritime Centre (Subic), Inc.  (2001) delved on the internal efficiency of maritime education using the same institution used by (1992) and  (1997).


The achieved improvements in the maritime education over the past decade resulted to the varying needs of students. In a research study by  (2001), he explored the need of maritime education students of Misamis University and proposed a guidance program. Cabrera came up with effective guidance counseling program that caters to maritime education students and their specific areas of personal development. What is interesting in this study is the ability of the author to dig deeper on the personal side of students. However, what is criticized on his work is the area of concentration of the study wherein a specific yet limited setting was used and various students are proposed to be subjected in a general guidance program that may be inapplicable to everyone granted that maritime education students, like any other person, have individual differences. With these limitations in the study, the recommendation for further study is recognized as well as the application and evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed guidance program.


This study is very much related to the subject of this research inquiry. The guidance program of the said maritime school should inquire into the personal reasons of students on matters that affect their present and future activities that directly link with their maritime education experiences. The exploration of the thoughts that lead to the achievement of their maritime goals must be facilitated. The study habits, challenges and difficulties are further discovered and addressed. Also, the variety of reasons behind maritime schooling or career orientation is included. With these, the maritime education student is secured on which path to take and direction to follow that will lead to his/her dreams. However, the research study of Cabrera does not further discuss the said concepts. Thus, this research investigates on the reasons or factors that affect their decision in pursuing maritime education. It particularly centers on early education trends like enrolment motivation.


From the reviewed studies above, it could be said that most literatures focusing on the subject of maritime education is limited to school setting and for the sake of academic requirements. Local literatures are scarce or limited within the bounds of social and academic institutions that undergone such researches. The research topics are more on focused on teachers and instruction, facilities and others. Less research topic caters to the students as key variables. Also, the publication of research studies and its results is complicated due to the time constraint and financial challenges. The presentation of research articles in wider audience is not possible. Journals and other publications on maritime education are limited if not missing. Thus, local studies are encouraged to be publicized and printed for professional, academic, and even mass consumption.


 


Foreign Studies


Foreign studies, similar to foreign literature, are extensive. First,  and  (1987) focused on ASEAN seafaring perspective. The said authors provide an overview of the future research in ASEAN seafaring. Then,  and  (1998) evaluated the education of marine engineers particularly on the area of control engineering using the requirements prescribed by the IMO and contained in the STWC ’95 Convention. Accordingly, they said that “the best preparation of a graduate to undertake a professional career is ensured by a comprehensive system of lectures, laboratory exercises, training on professional simulators and apprenticeship on board instrumentation, sail and cargo vessel” (). This means that maritime education must be practically applicable rather than merely theoretical. Additionally, subjects that are taught must be renewed every now and then and should be based on the current trends in the marine industry i.e. safe navigation and environment protection.


The following studies are focused in the computerization or technologically driven methods of maritime education: , 2004; , 2004; ., 2003,  and , 2000; and ., 1997.  (2004) conducted a global survey of the current developments of computer based training (CBT) and its application to maritime education and training (MET). Findings state that the skill of training of seafaring cadets and crewmembers is a very crucial issue, thus, the use of CBT programs will result to beneficial outcomes.  (2004) discussed the issue of new technology and maritime training in the 21st century by looking on the implications and solution in the maritime education and training institutions. With the same findings as , concluded that “maritime institutions can benefit from the use of new technology, but only through rational planning and sustainable staged growth” ().  and  (2003) particularly applied the same topic if research to maritime engineering education. The development and application of computer-based training programs is a type of tool to support didactic processes present in vocational training centers.  and  (2000) analyzed the impact of new technologies on the context of the METHAR Project in Europe while  and  (1997) catered on the CBT of ship automation. These studies conducted are not particularly related to the main subject of this research. However, it is claimed that the concept of technology and its effects in the maritime education is among the key potential factors that affect the enrolment in Marine Engineering.


            The topic of  (20003) particularly discusses the policy on the reforms and improvements present in the maritime education and training in China. In the author’s evaluation, the maritime education in the said country and the Chinese MET need to improve the quality of education by completely revising the policies that are existing in relation to the area. Similarly,  and  (2005) evaluated China and Philippines in relation to the skills and competence of Chinese and Filipino seafarers. Findings clarify the history of Chinese and Filipino maritime industry and linked with the role in economic development. At the end of the research study, the authors cleared the China is a nation with a major stake in the shipping industry and Filipino seafarers’ employment in the world’s merchant ships is outstanding. It is unquestionable that one is a ship-owner and the other a source of seafarers. The study of  and  could be linearly connected with the subject of this research as education and training leads to the identity of the Filipinos as world’s outstanding seafarers. The motivation of Filipino seafarers on the times that they plan to enroll up to the period of their study is taken into consideration.


 (2003) is concentrated in the communication process of mariners. As according to  ability of maritime universities to implement quality English teaching through English as Second Language (ESL) programmes is proposed. Meanwhile, the same study touches on critical thinking. All in all, the result of the study illuminates the need to maintain a quality education based on prescribed standards. The development in maritime communication is essential as globalization forces and multicultural trends continuously affect every phase of living nowadays (, 2003). Because of this, maritime education needs to address the demands that go with these budding trends.


Facing globalization forces and multicultural trends in the maritime education as well as industry requires a learning method that will serve as weapon in accumulating new body of knowledge. This is the core of the research study of  and  (2003). According to the authors, “Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a learning method based on the principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition and integration of new knowledge”. This kind of learning method greatly complies with the expectations of the shipping industry especially on the case of managers and the merchant marine fleet for deck officers. In relation to the development of maritime education worldwide, this study is significantly related. On the case of research pursuit,  and ’ study is supplemental in purpose as it determines the major steps in learning using the said method. The authors contend that as far as the nature of maritime education is considered, PBL curriculum seems to contribute a lot to the quality of maritime educational system.


The result of SIRC survey and similar observations have triggered research studies even by maritime institutions abroad inquiring into the factors affecting career growths of Filipino seamen (, 2004). This significant sponsored study by Warsash Maritime Centre’s Dr.  and Dr.  identifies the reason on the decline of Filipino seafarers in the international maritime industry. Among these reasons are the following: “lack of motivation, low career aspirations, and lack of confidence”. This research prompted authorities to come up with comprehensive and meaningfully attuned trainings that would “add-value” to the Filipinos seafarer. Specific recommendations mentioned include the conduct of trainings along “leadership and command, personnel management, ship management, and commercial and legal knowledge” (, 2005). On this case, the reasons behind the decline of Filipino seafarers are associated with the perceived factors in the enrollment of students. Using these reasons, the researcher aims to identify the effects of these reasons to the overall decision of enrollees to enter specific maritime courses.


The literatures in international maritime education are always thriving. The need to continue future research in the seafaring industry is always been recognized. There are new developments in every aspect of living and this means that the maritime education and industry is also affected. With this fact, the academic proponents of contemporary maritime education are always on the look out of research topics that will be conducted. It can be claimed that foreign literatures in maritime education is centered in on educational techniques as well as facilities that will affect the entire maritime education and training worldwide. The need to involved early maritime education trends was seldom tackled. Therefore, this research inquiry addresses this identified limitation.


 


Relevance to the Present Study


The chosen literatures reviewed in this chapter are relevant to the entire study and work in many ways. Specifically, studies are important to the topic under exploration. Most of the literatures relay the development of maritime education in the Philippines as it reflects on the topic of this research exploration. The issue of early maritime education i.e. the factors affecting enrollment decline of marine students is not directly discussed as literatures are limited on certain field of discussion. However, it is strongly affirmed that the above literatures are still relevant especially on the analysis and presentation of findings as they may help to support claims on the researcher.


Although some of these literatures are not directly related, they serve the function of giving direction on where the research is going to. There are some research studies and other literatures that were discussed. All of these literatures discussed above are directed to the eventual achievement of research aims and answering of the problems posed.


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Chapter 3


METHOD AND PROCEDURES


 


This chapter presents the methods and procedures utilized by the researcher in pursuing answers to the questions raised in the study. It also provides information on the description of the methods and procedures that were conceptualized and constructed in order to obtain the needed data and information that will be most useful to the study. Details on how the accumulated data were analyzed and interpreted as well as how the conclusion was drawn is discussed in full extent in this section.  This provides justification of the means in which the study was accomplished and at the same time helps in giving purpose and strength to the validity and reliability of the collected information that makes this particular research practice truthful and analytic.


Specifically, this research chapter covers the following discussions: the research design, the population and respondents of the study, the sample and sampling technique, the locale and database of the study, the research instrument and techniques, the sources of data, the statistical treatment used and the summary of the methodology.


 


Research Design


            In order to come up with the most suitable research approaches and strategies for this study, the research process “onion” is undertaken. This is because conducting a research is like peeling the back layers of an onion – in order to come to the central issue of how to collect the necessary data needed to answer the research questions and objectives, important layers should be first peeled away. With the said process, the researcher was able to create an outline on what measures are most appropriate to be applied in the study.


The researcher uses the qualitative research design utilizing the descriptive research method, which is primarily concerned with describing the nature or conditions of the current situation in detail (, 1994). According to  and  (2000), the qualitative research approach is most appropriate when conducting descriptive and exploratory study in order to quantify data that seem immeasurable, such as feelings, beliefs, and thoughts. Qualitative research is defined by  and  (2003) as “a subjective approach which includes examining and reflecting on perceptions in order to gain an understanding of social and human activities” (). The emphasis is on describing rather than on judging. This study employs qualitative research method, since it intends to find and build theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements. These qualitative elements does not have standard measures, rather they are behavior, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs. So, the goals of qualitative research are primarily to advance new theory, interpret the significance of individual events and giving voice to particular groups.


            So, the goals of qualitative research are primarily to advance new theory, interpret the significance of individual events and giving voice to particular groups. In contrast quantitative research is primarily about testing theory, identifying broad patterns and making predictions. Quantitative researchers are interested in how variables co-vary across cases. Therefore, they seek a limited amount of information about many cases. Qualitative research, on the other hand, seeks a lot of information about a limited number of cases. In this case, the choice of research strategy depends at least in which part and what the researcher wants to achieve.


            Data analysis employed in the study will be carried out in steps. Every data form will be carefully read in order to have an idea of the whole results concept. The text will then be read again and divided into meaningful units as the researcher see fit. Data will be condensed and formed into syntheses which will be integrated to form the address the research questions. Once the data has been collected and collated, the final task is to interpret the results. It is important to exercise caution when interpreting results and drawing conclusions from data, since it relates only to a sample. The more carefully the sample size and make-up has been selected, the more value the final data will have. However, the results can only ever be a guide and will never predict totally accurately. There will be a certain amount of statistical error in any results and the conclusions drawn from those results.


For this study, the researcher, after gathering the relevant data needed, it will be collated together with published studies from different local and foreign universities and articles from educational and social science journals. Afterwards, a critical analysis will be rendered on the collected documents and materials. A summary of all the information gathered would also be provided by the researcher, as well as a conclusion and insightful recommendations.


 


Population and Respondents of the Study


            Population is defined as a set of categorized group that can be people, objects or any items from which the selection can be made to be used in statistical treatment such as a group of young individuals, manager and literary books. Herein, the researcher will used the sampling method which is defined as a strategic way of choosing the most appropriate sample or the most suitable part of the population for determination of the characteristics or restriction. 


The researcher, in choosing subjects or respondents for the topic at hand, is usually thought of to have the power over who the respondents of the study will be. Such a task would have been easier, except a researcher cannot simply choose out of urge; the subjects must be selected carefully with the intention of having subjects who each posses characteristics that, when put together, will represent a community. It is not only themselves, whom these subjects will represent, but the bigger whole or the whole population. The characteristics which the researcher has chosen them for will determine which part of the community they belong and what part of the community they are representing.        For this study, the respondents are students who take up Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation courses in Philippine Merchant Marine Academy – Malate Campus. Using the survey method, a group of 120 students for each course was asked to answer an attitude survey questionnaire customized by the researcher.


 


Sample and Sampling Technique


In this research paper, it is important to distinguish and determines the respondents of the study. In this manner, the researcher will have the respondents through a sample. Sample is known as a predetermined element of a statistical population that undergoes specific study. In conducting a research this population is called a set of respondents that has been selected from a greater number of populations for survey purposes. A purposive sampling design was used in determining the factors that affects the decline of marine engineering enrollees compared to marine transportation. Purposive sampling is the chosen sampling method in the proposed study in which elements are chosen based on purpose of the study. The said sampling design may involve studying the entire population of some limited group or a subset of a population.  As with other non-probability sampling methods, purposive sampling does not produce a sample that is representative of a larger population, but it can be exactly what is needed in some cases – study of organization, community, or some other clearly defined and relatively limited group. Again, the sample of this study composed of 120 each course.


           


 


 


Locale and Database of the Study


            The research will be conducted in one research setting. Data that will be collected and gathered will be analyzed in the researcher’s house. Here, all the data will be gathered and analyzed into a meaningful whole.


 


Research Instrument and Techniques


            The instrument and techniques that were used in gathering pertinent data for the research investigation are the following:


Survey Questionnaire – Primary data are gathered with the aid of the predetermined questionnaire consistently distributed to the respondents. The researcher made use of checklist using the Likert Scale that elicited the answers of the respondents. This type of survey questionnaire is also called close-ended questionnaire. Close-ended survey questionnaire are also used in obtaining the information relevant to this study in order to draw out substantial amount of information yet limited in number. In administering the tool, respondents gathered self-reported information through self-administration of questions in a paper-pencil format. This method is useful in collecting data for the following reasons: subjects were asked to respond to the same set of questions in the same order, they had the same set of options for their responses, and it is economical. In a questionnaire using closed-ended questions, the researcher offered a list of answers that will be checked or chosen by the respondent. Close-ended questionnaires are not limited two alternative replies of true or false from which the subjects choose the one that matched the appropriate answer. Further, close-ended questionnaires facilitate easy tabulation and orderly treatment of data. The questionnaires are more convenient and provide fairly straightforward information relatively useful for the solutions of the problem posed. It also served as an aid for deliberate and immediate tallying because of the limitation of time for the prescribed duration of the research investigation.           


The data collection instrument will be a structured questionnaire that will be designed and based on Likert scale. A Likert Scale is a rating scale that requires the subject to indicate his or her degree of agreement or disagreement with a statement. Ideally, the respondents will grade each statement in the survey-questionnaire using a Likert scale (Barnett, 1991), with a five-response scale wherein respondents will be given five response choices. The equivalent weights for the answers will be:


 


Range                                                Interpretation


4.50 – 5.00                                        Highest


3.50 – 4.00                                        Higher


2.50 – 3.49                                        Middle


1.50 – 2.49                                        Lower


0.00 – 1.49                                        Lowest


 


The researcher opted to use the questionnaire as a tool since it is easy to construct having the rules and principles of construction are easy to follow. Moreover, copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents either by mail or by personal distribution. Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardized and these make tabulation easy. But more importantly, the respondents’ replies are of their own free will because there is no interviewer to influence them. This is one way to avoid biases, particularly the interviewers’ bias. The researcher will also use graph and charts for data presentation.


Interview – Interview is an effective means to accumulate some information and facts that are based from authorized individuals and experiential knowledge. Accordingly,  and  (2003) believed that this fact is significant since the very nature of any interview should be consistent with the research question or objective, the purpose of the research, and the research strategy that is being considered. The information gathered from the interviewee were directly quoted or adapted to support the initial observations of the researcher. Analysis and discussion of findings were incorporated to both literatures and facts obtained from the survey. Using the theories and principles of marine education, the researcher came up with his discussions, conclusion and recommendations as a product of empirical interpretation and analysis.


 


Sources of Data


            The sources of data used in this research activity are classified into primary and secondary.


Primary Data – The primary data is obtained from the result of the survey conducted involving 120 students from both courses identified. The students and products of the survey conducted were the primary sources. In the survey questionnaire, questions are asked directly using simple and easy to understand statements. The respondents are asked to check the most preferred choice from the variety of choices presented.


Secondary Data – On the other hand, secondary data collection method is literature review. Relevant journals/textbooks and other publicly accessed documents are used. The said literatures are obtained using library and internet research. Specifically, a wide variety of literatures covering the period from 1990s up to the present will be used. The literatures relates to maritime education, maritime industry, Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation courses, and similarly related terms. The author conducted a thorough critical review of the literatures that are personally selected. Related concepts and theories are reviewed from various literatures. This is to ensure that the claims and findings of this research study are supported by legitimate sources.


 


Statistical Treatment Used


When the entire survey questionnaire have been collected, the researcher used statistics to analyse all the data; and was assisted by the SPSS in coming up with the statistical analysis for this study. For the interview, a content analysis was drawn in order to identify factors pertaining to the effective/ineffective application of leadership. Because of this research design, the results of the data gathered were limited to the determination of factors that affect the satisfaction of the patients in relation to effective leadership. Thus other possible findings in the issues of leadership and satisfaction were not being pursued.


Moreover, this research will utilize the frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and Correlation statistics in order to determine the differences and relationship of the responses of the respondents regarding their perception on the study.


            Frequency – This is the total of similar responses acquired per item and asked in the survey questionnaire.


Percentage – The percentage is used to compare and present the findings on the frequency of responses obtained from the questionnaire. The formula is:


 


                        P = _n   x 100


         N


 


            Where;           P – Percentage


                                    n – Number of responses falling under a particular category


                                    N – Total number of respondents


           


            Weighted Mean – This is a technique that is used to measure the central tendency in cases where some values are given more importance than others. The formula is:


                                                __


                                                 X = _∑fx


                                                            N


 


Where;           _


                        X – Weighted mean


                        ∑ – symbol of summation


                        f – Frequency of responses


                        x – Scale value


                        N – Total number of respondents


                       


Correlation – The strength of the linear association between two variables is quantified by the correlation coefficient ( and , 1973).


Given a set of observations (x1, y1), (x2,y2),…(xn,yn), the formula for computing the correlation coefficient is given by:



            Where:


= Correlation between X and Y


= Sum of Variable X


= Sum of Variable Y


= Sum of the product X and Y


N= Number of Cases


= Sum of squared X score


= Sum of squared Y score


 


            Furthermore, the correlation coefficient always takes a value between -1 and 1, with 1 or -1 indicating perfect correlation (all points would lie along a straight line in this case). A positive correlation indicates a positive association between the variables (increasing values in one variable correspond to increasing values in the other variable), while a negative correlation indicates a negative association between the variables (increasing values is one variable correspond to decreasing values in the other variable). A correlation value close to 0 indicates no association between the variables.


Since the formula for calculating the correlation coefficient standardizes the variables, changes in scale or units of measurement will not affect its value. For this reason, the correlation coefficient is often more useful than a graphical depiction in determining the strength of the association between two variables.


In addition, if the correlation index of the computed rxy is not perfect, then it is suggested to use the following categorization (, . and . , 1973):


            rxy                                                  Indication


between ± 0.80 to ± 1.00    :           High Correlation


between ± 0.60 to ± 0.79    :           Moderately High Correlation


between ± 0.40 to ± 0.59    :           Moderate Correlation


between ± 0.20 to ± 0.39    :           Low Correlation


between ± 0.01 to ± 0.19    :           Negligible Correlation


 


Summary of Methodology


As stated in this methodology part, the research underwent stages. In the research design, the researcher collected secondary data and formulated and developed the questionnaire and interview. In this stage, these instruments were subjected to approval and validation. During the data collection, the researcher collated and summarized the data obtained from the questionnaire and survey. The researcher then analyzed these data and from these, the researcher came up with findings and recommendations that shall be presented in the next chapters.


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


Bibliography


 


Chapter 1


 


 


LOCAL LITERATURE AND STUDIES


 


Chapter 3


 




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