The use of performance assessment is not an entirely new strategy in education. Essays, oral presentations, and other kinds of projects always have been features of elite private education. In many classrooms both private and public teachers for years have been assessing student progress through assigned papers, reports, and projects that are used as a basis for course grades. At the national level, the Advanced Placement Program of the College Board from its inception has assessed students by requiring at least one written essay in addition to responses to multiple-choice questions (Calfee & Perfumo 1996). What is new in the current reform movement is the emphasis on the use of performance assessments for systematic, school wide, instructional, and curricular purposes at the school level and for accountability purposes at the district and state levels. In some instances, proponents of assessment reform view performance assessments as the lever for systemic curricular and instructional reforms at any level of the educational hierarchy. Education reformers insisted that, in order to function as a lever of education reform, assessments must be based on a generative view of knowledge, require an active production of student work and consist of meaningful tasks rather than of what can be easily tested and easily scored. Thus, in assessment reform theory, all performance assessments must require students to structure the assessment task, apply information, and construct responses, and, in many cases, students must also be able to explain the processes by which they arrive at the answers (Khattri & Reeve 1998). The performance of students is an important concern especially on a basic level. This paper is a proposal to create a study on improving the performance of basic school pupils in science.
Aims and objectives
1. Determine how students’ performance is measured.
2. Understand the different kinds of student performance.
3. Know the situation of basic school pupils in science classes.
4. Determine the weak points of basic school pupils in science classes.
5. Analyze how to improve the performance of basic school pupils in science.
Perhaps the most comprehensive motivational perspective on schooling is one that connects the contextual antecedents and personal consequences of both teachers’ and students’ motivation to teach and motivation to learn, respectively. Researchers, teachers, and parents are often concerned with encouraging students to more fully engage in academic work, to take academic risks, and to put more effort into their schoolwork. In other words, the concern is with helping students move toward engagement in the academic endeavor, hence the term approach tendencies or approach motivation (Midgley 2002). The flip side of the approach coin is avoidance tendencies, motivation, and behavior. Although approach tendencies have received the lion’s share of the attention in motivation research, there is also a history of research and theory on avoidance motivation and has recently received more attention. Learning is augmented by seeking and gaining the assistance of teachers and more knowledgeable peers when one needs help. Sometimes, as is the case with self-handicapping, students actually undermine their own performance by not trying, or by procrastinating, so that they can have a ready excuse other than lack of ability when and if they fail. These various strategies for avoiding failure or avoiding the appearance of academic inability are very distressing to educators and parents because they actually inhibit learning. There are few things more frustrating to teachers than being confronted with a student who actively and purposefully avoids learning opportunities. Increasingly, people are finding evidence that engaging in these frustrating avoidance behaviors may actually be encouraged by the motivational climate in the learning context (Jonassen 2004).
To determine the number of respondents that will be asked to participate and give information regarding the study convenience sampling will be used. Convenience sampling means to collect or interview individuals who actually experience the phenomenon. Convenience sampling will focus on individuals that experienced diabetes mellitus or has someone in the family that experienced such disease.
Primary and secondary sources of data would be used for the study. Surveys will the primary method of data collection. Internet surveys would be the primary source of data. Internet surveys have been both hyped for their capabilities and criticized for the security issues it brings. Internet surveys would also require less time for the researchers and the respondents. Secondary source of data would involve the use of books and journals.
In analyzing the collected data, the paper will be divided into the demographic profiles of the respondents and the ideas of respondents. The data that will be acquired will be put into graphs and tables.
Calfee, RC & Perfumo, P (eds.) 1996, Writing portfolios in the
classroom: Policy and practice, Promise and peril, Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Jonassen, DH (eds.) 2004, Handbook of research on educational
communications and technology, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Khattri, N & Reeve, AL 1998, Principles and practices of
performance assessment, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Midgley, C (eds.) 2002, Goals, goal structures and patterns of
adaptive learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.