Executive Summary

Even in a classroom setting a group is needed to instill the camaraderie and cooperation between various individuals.  The group in a classroom setting provides an opportunity for wider perspectives on a lesson and faster achievement of goals. This paper takes a look at a certain classroom group, an activity they have to do and different aspects that describes how they work together as they complete the activity.



Managers should realize that employees choose to perform the way they do because of some internal or external motivation. To ensure greater participation, managers must understand this simple motivational principle. Employee motivation can be greatly enhanced when managers understand the seven assumptions that underlie change behavior (1999).   First, employees are motivated to change their behavior when given clear, sharply focused objectives. Second, employees need to thoroughly understand how to perform their jobs correctly. Third, employees are more likely to change their performance behaviors when they are given opportunities to participate in problem solving and decision-making activities that directly affect them Fourth, change requires personal commitment for action, which obligates managers to secure employee buy-in prior to the creation of growth and development plan. Fifth, managers must clearly communicate positive and negative rewards that are linked directly to performance improvement. Sixth, managers must demonstrate patient, persistent follow-through when providing positive feedback and reinforcement. Seventh, managers need to be realistic regarding the types of rewards offered, while acting within their discretion and authority ( 1999).  Management of a group requires the leader to have an idea on how people are motivated.  The success of a group activity will rely not only on an individual but on how the group works together. This paper intends to analyze the classroom group work together and whether they achieved their goals.

Main Body


A group was formed to compete in a team building exercise in class. Each group was given a pile of A4 photocopying paper, a stapler and some sticky tapes. In each group that composes of 4 to 5 people the members are required to build the tallest structure they can in about60 minutes. The structure can be in any shapes or sizes. It may be round, or square. What is important is the height of the structure.  The structure must be strong enough to stand up at for 5 minutes after the one hour building time.


Group formation

Group formation did not seem to reflect but to cause attraction between people: People liked others not as individuals but as members of the same group. The fundamental principle that follows from self-categorization theory is that psychological group formation is an adaptive process that produces socially unitary, collective behavior and makes possible group relations of mutual attraction, cooperation, and influence between members. Factors in a given social setting tend to create and make salient shared group membership, shared social identity, tend to produce a mutual orientation of attraction, cooperation, and influence as members define and react to each other in terms of their common social category membership rather than as differing individual persons (2001). The group was chosen through determining individuals who have good behavior. Out of 10 acquaintances of the leader, 4 of the ones that were really close to the leader was chosen. The 4 members are diligent, intelligent, witty, and have a good sense of humor. The 4 members started the meeting through non formal conversation until they get to know each other.  At first the members were shy to talk to each other but after some time all were able to relate to the other members of the group and this helped in having one goal as a group. The members of the group were chosen in terms of their willingness to succeed and the kind of relationship they had with the leader.


Decision Making

All human activities involve decision making. Everyone has problems at home, at work, and in social groups for which decisions must be made. Thus, decision making is a normal human requirement that begins in childhood and continues throughout life. In work settings, when asked to define their major responsibilities, many managers respond that solving problems and making decisions are the most important components of what they do on a daily basis and throughout their ongoing management tasks ( 2002).Decision making process is done when the group member wants to make new goals, create changes to the current strategies and change something about the project. All of the other groups have this and it is the best way to settle problems within the group. The decision making process must come up with the best result to prevent more problems to come. The decision making process should be done accordingly and with so much care to prevent any personal issues between members of the group. As part of the decision making process one member would give his/her suggestion. This would then be followed by a small discussion on how the suggestion would help in achieving the goals of the project. After all the sides are heard the group will vote to determine if they will follow the suggestion or not.  Decision making was not a solo effort. All members gave their comments on how the tower would look like and what would be the physical characteristics of the tower. Each part of the tower was given some thought and was given careful analysis before someone would suggest and before the group would vote on that decision.



One of the best ways that managers can increase the level of motivation among subordinates is to be effective leaders. Leadership can be defined as a process of influence in which the leader is able to get the follower to stay on a prescribed path toward the attainment of specific goals that are desired by the leader. Thus, by definition the art of leadership is an important part of effective management. The art of leadership may be inherent within the individual. If leadership can be acquired through education and training it may be the most difficult thing to learn (2003).


 A categorization of leadership types can be established relating to the institutional settings within which leadership is exercised and which allow or prevent feasible leadership action. Leadership styles by contrast can be categorized according to the actual behavior of leaders faced by particular situations. The leadership component is not much easier to identify. Traditional organizational culture is sometimes expressed in terms such as risk aversion, inertia, hierarchy and sometimes political clienteles (2004). Leadership styles associated with this kind of political culture are far removed from the values and expectations which might be linked to an effective complementarily between leadership and community involvement. A range of leadership styles may therefore be appropriate for joint working dependent on the personal characteristics evident in the leaders reflecting the degree of charisma, commitment, persuasion, ambition etc. which rest within any individual (2004). There are different leadership approaches. The leader of the group used a democratic kind of leadership. The democratic leader listens to the personnel’s ideas and he uses the ideas to make decisions regarding the performance of the firm.  When changes arises, this type of leadership helps the personnel adjust to the changes and the democratic leader helps the personnel adjust more rapidly than in other styles. In this type of leadership style the personnel know that they have been consulted with regards to the decision making process, this minimizes resistance (1998). Democratic style of leadership was used to ensure that each member is free to discuss their ideas and beliefs. The leader allowed for all thoughts and ideas to be discussed as the tower was being done. Each member was given enough time to discuss what they think would help in the project. All members were free to criticize the leader; the leader also made sure that the members are reminded whenever they do something that does not help in the creation of the tower.  There were some light moments when one member would share a story or a joke that is not related to the project. This reduced the stress being felt by each member. It also helped in strengthening the bond of the members of the group. While working some members of the group gave naughty remarks against the other groups. This made the task easier and helped in showing that the project was being done in the spirit of friendly competition.


Membership roles

Organizations mean different things to different people. Founders and managers treat organizations in a variety of ways. Some founders and managers act as though the organization is an extension of themselves. The organization’s success is their success; an attack on the organization is a personal attack on them. Such leaders tend to treat other members of the organization as part of the family. All members of an organization or other social system are part of its decider subsystem, so long as they make decisions based on the values, purposes, and goals of that system. When they make decisions based on their own values, however, they become deciders for themselves (1994). Critical questions for social systems, therefore, are whether and when members are acting on behalf of the system rather than for themselves Members of the organization perform most of the acts involved in protecting the organization from environmental stresses and excluding or receiving information. Most of the members who engage in boundary processes are involved with other critical subsystems as well. Member roles change as functions change in an evolving organization ( 1998). Each member had various roles for the success of the tower. One member was designated to build the base of the tower; two members were assigned to construct the middle part of the tower. The rest of the group members constructed the topmost part of the tower. Each member made sure that while doing the task assigned to them they still help the others in making a sturdy tower.  The role of each member of the organization contributed to the success of the tower.



Ordinary language and casual conversation, once almost unnoticed in analyses of communication, have by now gained huge ontological respectability. For this reason, the task for a theory of human communication today may well be to explain the striking similarities in the norms of conversation that appear to have evolved across cultures ( 2003). Communication is important for businesses and individuals. It is a means for them to convey any message they have. Communication is needed to create the best strategy. Good communication leads to good relationships and better understanding of a human person.  One particular advantage of the concept of speech style is that it can be used in a non evaluative sense. While recognizing that groups can differ in their style of communication, there is no necessary implication that one style of communication is better than another. However, differences in style can underlie difficulties in communication between members of different cultures or subcultures (2003).Communication involves the active exchange of information between two or more members of the team, as well as an individual team member providing information to others in the appropriate manner. In general, communication is a mechanism that links the other components of teamwork. For example, communication is the important link between monitoring other members’ performance and providing feedback about that performance ( 1995).  The members of the group made sure that they communicated well with each other to achieve the goals. Each member asked first before taking any measures that will change the outcome of the project.  The members of the group were free to communicate any issues they have with the leader and other members of the group. The members of the group allowed for the free flow of ideas and beliefs. The members of the group gave a piece of their mind on a certain part of the project; this helped in making sure that the project was done above standards. Whenever one wants to say something to the other member of the group they were free to do so, but they were asked to say it in a polite manner.


The performance of the group

Most organizations already have the building blocks in the form of management approaches and capabilities; they just stop short of linking what they have into a continuous cycle, which can amplify the performance of the whole. It is this connecting the dots and getting all parts working together that permanently boosts management effectiveness and business performance ( 2002).The role of performance measurement is to help keep the organization on the operating on a straight and narrow track. The measures are used primarily by business specialists, and the action taken as a result of such analysis may also be exclusively good for the business. Nevertheless, it is also clear that evidence of business problems may occur because of deficiencies in other areas of business operations. In this case, the ratios can provide the company’s director with the information necessary to convince other managers that operating action needs to be taken in order to avoid any company problem. However, the primary role served by this type of performance measurement lies within the province of the business function, and is concerned with the effective and efficient use of the company’s resources (2002).  Performance management helped in checking the flaws that cause disunity in the group, it then checks for the probable actions that can be used to initiate unity the class organization. The use of performance management opened up the lines of communication and it was used by the group so that they can work as one unit.  Performance management gave the opportunity for members of the class organization to discuss issues that cause dissension and failure to reach goals. As the final stages of the project were conducted, the leader gave some performance appraisal on the group. The members participated well and did their job well. The leader was thrilled to have them as group mates. After the leader the teacher gave a personal review of the tower and what were the observations on the group.  The teacher gave a positive review of the tower and the camaraderie between the group members. The teacher gave high remarks on how the group members communicated with each other and helped each other to achieve the goal.


The group was chosen through determining individuals who have good behavior. The members of the group were chosen in terms of their willingness to succeed and the kind of relationship they had with the leader. Decision making was not a solo effort. All members gave their comments on how the tower would look like and what would be the physical characteristics of the tower. Democratic style of leadership was used to ensure that each member is free to discuss their ideas and beliefs. Each member had various roles for the success of the tower. The role of each member of the organization contributed to the success of the tower. The members of the group made sure that they communicated well with each other to achieve the goals.  Each member asked first before taking any measures in the project. 



For any other consequent activity with the same group the leaders and members should make sure that they make use of the strengths of all the members.  The strengths of al members will help in speeding up performance and reducing errors. The group should learn how to observe how the others perform, this would help the group analyze their own performance and improve it accordingly. Moreover the group should learn to listen carefully to instructions carefully. Any misheard instruction can cause the failure to reach the goal in any activity. Lastly the group should know their weaknesses and find means to change it. This would make the group more efficient and effective.




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